Research with Ethnic and Cultural Groups

Self Described Happy Couples and Factors
of Successful Marriage in Iran  (click here)

Daneshpour, Asoodeh and colleagues (2011)

The purpose of this study is to identify factors of successful marriage from the viewpoint of happy couples in Iran. For this purpose, 365 couples (N = 730) were selected from staff of several industrial companies and teachers in Tehran and Birjand. Purposive sampling method was used. Eleven couples with highest scores from Four ENRICH Couple Scales (2010) was described themselves as happy couples underwent an in-depth, semi-structured interview. Happy couples formulated effective factors for their successful marriage as follows: a) we trust each other and are committed, b) we consult with each other, c) we think our relationship is intimate, d) we solve our own problems, e) we cooperate with each other in children?s upbringing f) we share common beliefs, and g) we express our love to each other. Traditional patriarchal and matriarchal couples and non-traditional couples differed only in dealings with family management.


Chinese and American Premarital Couple Type Comparison (click here)

Li, Olson, Solheim

This study developed an empirical couple typology using a convenient sample of premarital Chinese couples from Hong Kong, Malaysia, Singapore, and Taiwan and compared that typology with a premarital American couple typology.  Cluster analyses were conducted with a sample of 7,567 premarital Chinese couples who completed the PREPARE inventory.  Results identified four types of premarital Chinese couples: Vitalized, Harmonious, Traditional, and Conflicted.  As hypothesized, the four premarital couple types were replicated across the Chinese and American samples, but the frequency of couples in each type differed.  Couple typologies can be used to recommend premarital preparation approaches that fit each of the four couple types.


Validation of the Korean Premarital Inventory: K–PREPARE  (click here)

Kim, Nami (2009)

An analysis of the theoretical field identified 11 factors which could affect the marriage preparation of Korean premarital couples. The K-PREPARE assessed 10 of the 11 factors. Furthermore, 7 factors of the K-PREPARE were in harmony with Premarital Preparation Evaluation Scale (PREPARE) developed for Korea. This study found the K-PREPARE to be culturally relevant.

Methodologically, this study examined translation verification, the structure of sub-scales and reliability analysis, as well as construct validity, criterion-related validity, and predictive validity of the K-PREPARE. This study proved that the K-PREPARE is a relevant and valid tool for Korean premarital couples.

Doctoral Dissertation 2009, Department of Education, Yonsei University


Discriminate Validity of Korean Version of ENRICH  (click here)

Jae woo Park, Kevin Deokil Kim, Wan young Song, & Jee yeon Lee (2009)

This study was designed to validate Korean ENRICH (K-ENRICH) Inventory. A total sample of 1058 married couples' data was analyzed. Internal consistencies of K-ENRICH subscales ranged from .68 to .90 and the coefficients of temporal stability (test-retest) ranged from .57 to .89. The results of confirmatory factor analysis indicated that K-ENRICH consisted of 10 factors. Model fit indices were acceptable (RMSEA=.065, TLI=.90, and CFI=.92). Correlations between FACES-III (Family Adaptability and Cohesion Evaluation Scale 3rd Ed.) and 10 subscales of K-ENRICH ranged from .57-.85. Discriminant analysis, which was done for assessing discriminant validity, showed that Positive Couple Agreement (PCA) scores could discern the married satisfied group from the married dissatisfied group with 95.8% accuracy. Overall, results found a high internal consistency, test-retest reliability and construct validity.

Reference: Korean Journal of Christian Counseling, May 2009.


Predictions of Marital Satisfaction in Taiwan  (click here)

Chiung-Tao Shen (2001)

The study of 100 married couples in Taiwan found that the ENRICH couples assessment was reliable and valid for Chinese couples.  Women reported higher marital satisfaction than men.  The scales most predictive of happy couples (based on discriminant analysis) were the following: couple flexibility, communication, family and friends, couple closeness, personality issues, and conflict resolution.


Same Marriage; Two Realities: Gender Differences of Marriage in Taiwan  (click here)

Chiung-Tao Shen (2002)

This study aimed to examine gender differences in marriage among Taiwanese couples.  Quantitative and cross-sectional data were collected from a community sample of 100 married couples in Taiwan.


Hispanic & Caucasian Married Couple Types based on ENRICH - 2006  (click here)

Olson & Garrett (2006)

Although it is often assumed that different ethnic groups will have different patterns of marriage, this study found considerable similarity in couple types across four ethnic combinations of married couples (both Hispanic, both Caucasian, Hispanic Male—Caucasian Female, Hispanic Female—Caucasian Male). This study is based on ENRICH data used in a dissertation by Jeffery Garrett (2004) who found no significant differences between the four groups of couples on the major ENRICH scales (i.e. marital satisfaction, communication, conflict resolution).


Cultural Adaptation of PREPARE with Japanese Premarital Couples - 2004  (click here)

Shuji G. Asai & David H. Olson (2004)

In this study, we attempted to achieve a culturally sensitive adaptation of the PREPARE Inventory with Japanese couples. A Japanese premarital couple typology was developed using cluter analyses. Several unique features of the Japanese premarital types are identified and discussed.

Reference: Journal of Marital & Family Therapy, 2004, Vol. 30, No. 4, 411-426.


Five Types of African American Marriages based on ENRICH - 2001  (click here)

William D. Allen & David H. Olson (2001)

This study developed a marital typology based on a non-random, national sample of 415 African-American marriages who took the ENRICH marital assessment inventory. The resulting typology was compared with a similar sample of about 7,000 marriages (who also took ENRICH), including distressed couples and those seeking marital enrichment. Five types of African-American marriages were identified through cluster analysis of positive couple agreement (PCA) scores in ten relationship domains. Relationships between marital satisfaction, marital stability and the five marital types were then analyzed. The five types (from highest marital satisfaction to lowest) were labeled as vitalized, harmonious, traditional, conflicted, and devitalized. The study replicated the number and characteristics of marital types found in predominantly European-American marital samples, including the percentage of African-American marriages in each type.

Reference: Journal of Marital & Family Therapy, 2001, Vol. 27, No. 3, 301-314.


Online Self-Training

If you are unable to find a workshop in your area or prefer to learn online, you can register for PREPARE/ENRICH
Online Self-Training.


Marriage Mentor Program

Marriage Mentors Talking to Couple

Once your church or community has a trained and certified PREPARE/ENRICH professional, you might consider establishing a Marriage Mentor Program to help premarital couples get more preparation or married couples get the assistance they need for healthier relationships.

Questions?  Call 1-800-331-1661
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